Somerset County Photography Club
Subject: The Future of Photography (emailed 2007-10-30)

Some insight into The Future of Photography based on a Robert Scoble interview of Professor Marc Levoy.

"Photographers, don't miss this one! It's an interview with Thomas Hawk and Marc Levoy, Stanford University Professor, who is jointly appointed in computer science and electrical engineering. But that's the geeky way of explaining this dude is doing some radical stuff with cameras. He shows us a camera that can refocus the image AFTER you shoot it! Talks about other research to stitch images together, digitize statues, among many others."
Advanced Photographic Research at Stanford with Prof. Marc Levoy (200MB, 54 minutes)
Those not on high speed access will probably have to skip the 200MB interview,
     MP4 Video Video | Posted by Robert Scoble | October 25th, 2007 12:01am  Must see video for those on high-speed access

Click on the flash popup player button with the arrow to view in a larger screen.  For other viewers you might double-click on video, or click on a full screen button in the lower right corner of the video frame .

The rest of the links were gathered from keyword searching afterwards, and cover most of what was seen in more detail in words and pictures.  These additional links were found using keywords from the interview and including "photography" and "Levoy" in the search.

Marc Levoy's publications and CV
    Method and system for light field rendering - Patent 6097394 (published 2000)
    Apparatus and method for capturing a scene using staggered triggering of dense camera arrays - Patent 20070030342

The Plenoptic Camera allows you to select your plane of focus and depth-of-field after the picture is made, in software.  The following five minute summary (18MB) was extracted from the above interview really only covers this one topic of the interview.

The Plenoptic camera is a novel single-lens camera that captures 3-D scene information. A plenoptic image is captured with a single lens and a lenticular lens array at the imaging plane. This image, like an insect's compound eye, consists of multiple sub-images each imaging the scene in front of it, in the plenoptic camera, the main lens aperture is imaged behind each lenticular element.

Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenoptic Camera
The 4D light field measures the amount of light traveling along each ray that intersects the sensor.  One can also think of this as capturing the directional lighting distribution arriving at each location on the sensor.  The purpose of capturing the additional two dimensions of data is to allow us to apply ray-tracing techniques to compute synthetic photographs flexibly from the acquired light.

"The Moment Camera", paper by Michael F. Cohen and Richard Szeliski (Microsoft Research)

Future cameras will let us “capture the moment”, not just the instant when the shutter opens.  The moment camera will gather significantly more data than is needed for a single image.  This data, coupled with automated and user-assisted algorithms, will provide powerful new paradigms for image making.

Graphcut Textures: Image and Video Synthesis Using Graph Cuts Vivek Kwatra , Arno Schödl , Irfan Essa , Greg Turk and Aaron Bobick.
Derivative images chosen from among millions of images for a plausible image completion to replace an unwanted object.
Graphcut Textures: Image and Video Synthesis Using Graph Cuts

Ray scanning for statues, laser, color -- 4D light field
      "The Digital Michelangelo Project: 3D Scanning of Large Statues,"
      Levoy interview, by Noah Adams of National Public Radio's
      All Things Considered, June 13, 2000.
      A visit to the marble quarries at Pietrasanta
      Science News Online (9/18/99): Sculpting Virtual Reality
        3-D models offer new ways of seeing art, By Damaris Christensen"

High Performance Imaging Using Large Camera Arrays
Obtaining picture with an array of cameras to shoot through partially occluded view.  Focusing through bushes.

Giga pixel images (film to digital) - HD View, stitched in Photoshop 8 images
Gigapixel Panoramas (Microsoft Research)
HD View Beta -- Demonstration: drag to reposition, scroll to enlarge/reduce -- Microsoft Research: GigapxlHD View: Gigapixel Panoramas, HD View is a new viewer developed by Microsoft Research's Interactive Visual Media group to aid in the display and interaction with very large images.   sample images, and links to sites with images.

Gigapxl Project --
The Gigapxl™ camera captures single exposures on film with enough resolvable detail to support scanning at resolutions up to four billion pixels. Single-gigapixel images are slightly larger than 44,000 x 22,000 pixels in size and four-gigapixel images are twice as wide and twice as high at 88,000 x 44,000 pixels. (More information on Gigapxl™)

DARPA Unveils Gigapixel Camera - Government - Mobile & Wireless, By Patience Wait, InformationWeek, July 06, 2012,  Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency works on camera with ultra high resolution that will help soldiers and unmanned aerial vehicles see better through dark, fog, smoke.  Uses between 100 and 150 micro cameras to build a wide-field panoramic image with a goal to reach resolutions of up to 10 to 50 gigapixels.

Lytro's new Cinema camera could mean the end of green screen,  It can capture footage at a ridiculous 755 megapixels per frame, at 300 frames per second.  Since Lytro's tech basically captures all the 3D information in a scene, the imagery is unusually friendly to CGI. Placing virtual objects at exactly the right depth in a scene is essentially taking advantage of a native ability of the footage.  With the Lytro, the need for green screen goes away. Since the Lytro footage has very specific depth information for all objects in the scene, it's child's play to ditch and replace any part of it.

3D rotations
Seeing into the Past: Creating a 3D Modeling Pipeline for Archaeological Visualization by P. Allen S. Feiner A. Troccoli H. Benko E. Ishak B. Smith Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, NY
Archaeology is a destructive process in which accurate and detailed recording of a site is imperative. Allen, S. Feiner, A. Troccoli, H. Benko, E. Ishak, B. Smith

With a video projector providing structured illumination, reciprocity permits us to generate pictures from the viewpoint of the projector, even though no camera was present at that location.  (produces 4D lighting dataset) Canon EOS 20D camera was aimed into a 4x4 array of planar mirrors, yielding 16 virtual cameras with 800x600 pixels of resolution each (see Figure 15a). The captured transport matrix can be used to relight the dual image as if it were illuminated by up to 16 point light sources with .ne angular control (i.e. by 16 virtual projectors). This is sufficient to simulate soft shadows 2005: Pradeep Sen, Billy Chen, Gaurav Garg, Stephen R. Marschner, Mark Horowitz, Marc Levoy, Hendrik P. A. Lensch

Additional questions: asked of Mark Levoy in the Robert Scoble interview
SIGGRAPH (Special Interest Group on GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques, ACM)
Finding Paths through the World's Photos, Noah Snavely, Rahul Garg, Steven M. Seitz, Richard Szeliski, University of Washington, Microsoft Research.
When a scene is photographed many times by different people, the viewpoints often cluster along certain paths. These paths are largely specific to the scene being photographed, and traverse interesting regions and viewpoints. We seek to discover a range of such paths and turn them into controls for image-based rendering. Our approach takes as input a large set of community or personal photos, reconstructs camera viewpoints, and automatically computes orbits, panoramas, canonical views, and optimal paths between views. The scene can then be interactively browsed in 3D using these controls or with five degree-of-freedom free-viewpoint control. As the user browses the scene, nearby views are continuously selected and transformed, using control-adaptive reprojection techniques.

Photo Tourism, Photo tourism is a system for browsing large collections of photographs in 3D. Our approach takes as input large collections of images from either personal photo collections or Internet photo sharing sites (a), and automatically computes each photo's viewpoint and a sparse 3D model of the scene (b). Our photo explorer interface enables the viewer to interactively move about the 3D space by seamlessly transitioning between photographs, based on user control (c).

Community Photo Collections, With billions of photos now online, these collections should enable huge opportunities in 3D reconstruction, visualization, image-based rendering, recognition, and other research areas.

Microsoft's 196 megapixel camera, Topping out at a whopping 196 megapixels and a native resolution of 17,310 x 11,310 pixels, UltraCamXp can take stereo images at 1 inch GSD with up to 2.5 Gbps data throughput.  The company touts the UltraCamXp as the largest format camera available today for aerial photography and will use it soon to improve the quality of terrain imagery used by its Live Maps mapping.

1,001 Cameras See In Gigapixels (sciencedaily 2009-10-09)
Cameras of the future: Heart researchers create revolutionary photographic technique, Scientists at the University of Oxford have developed a revolutionary way of capturing a high-resolution still image alongside very high-speed video
More from Science Daily: site: intitle:cameras OR intitle:photography - Google Search

Non-photographic solutions

Some Additions unrelated to the interview and additional articles above.
Museum Collections  
Google Street Maps

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